科学美国人(翻译):恐龙也会得癌症 2021.1.19

cathy0301 2021-01-20 335 阅读
分享

“Given that hundreds of thousands of dinosaur bones have been dug up, is there any evidence that dinosaurs got cancer there?”

既然已经挖掘出了数十万块恐龙骨头,有没有证据表明恐龙得过癌症?”

David Evans, senior curator of Paleontology at the Royal Museum of Ontario in Toronto, at a recent museum fundraising event.

多伦多安大略皇家博物馆古生物学高级馆长大卫·埃文斯在最近的一次博物馆筹款活动上说道。

“There had been a few studies that had kind of suggested based on gross anatomy that dinosaurs might have gotten cancer, but there was nothing compelling from a medical standpoint, and from that point on we decided to go on a hunt for rare dinosaur diseases, in particular cancer.”

“有一些基于解剖结构的研究,似乎表明恐龙可能得了癌症,但从医学角度来看,这些研究没有什么说服力。从这个角度来看,我们决定去寻找罕见的恐龙疾病,尤其是癌症。”

So in 2017. Evans and colleagues went digging through a collection of dinosaur bones at the Royal Tyrell Museum of paleontology in Alberta—a hotbed of dinosaur fossils.

因此,在2017年,埃文斯和同事们开始在位于阿尔伯特的皇家提利尔古生物博物馆(恐龙化石的温床)的一批恐龙骨骼中进行挖掘。

“And out of the hundreds of dinosaur bones that we looked at, we found one that was a candidate for bone cancer.”

“在我们研究的数百块恐龙骨骼中,我们发现了一块骨头上可能有罹患骨癌。”

The bone specimen Evans and his colleagues found comes from a dinosaur that roamed Western Canada between 70 and 75 million years ago. The creature is called a Centrosaurus.

埃文斯和同事们发现的骨骼标本来自于7000万至7500万年前生活在加拿大西部的一种恐龙。这种生物被称为中央龙。

“Centrosaurus is a horned dinosaur. It’s about the size of a rhinoceros and it’s a close cousin of the famous triceratops, so it looked very similar. It would have a parrot beak at the end of its large skull. It had a neck shield similar to triceratops and walked around on four feet and ate plants.”

“中央龙是一种有角的恐龙。大小和犀牛差不多,是著名的三角龙的近亲,所以它们看起来非常相似。在它巨大的头骨末端会有一个鹦鹉嘴。它有一个类似于三角龙的颈盾,用四脚走路,以植物为食。”

Its apparent cancer is a particularly aggressive type.

明显癌症是一种特别侵袭性的类型。

“And this would have made it more vulnerable to the top predators at the time, which were the cousins of T. rex. But we actually don’t think it’s the cancer that kid this animal, which if it would have been allowed to run its course, it certainly could have been fatal

这使得中央龙更容易受到当时顶级掠食者的攻击,这些掠食者是雷克斯霸王龙的表亲。但我们并不认为这种癌症会杀死中央龙,但如果任由它发展,肯定会致命。

The tumorous bone was discovered among thousands of other bones from the same species. All these animals appeared to have died in a coastal flood.

块肿瘤骨是在数千块来自同一物种的骨头中发现的。所有这些动物似乎都死于一场沿海的洪水。

“And this flood looked like it killed a herd of these horned dinosaurs, Centrosaurus, which are known for living in these social groups. And we suspect, although we can’t prove, that the cancer could get to such an advanced state because this animal was able to benefit from the safety of numbers of being in a herd. Whereas if it was out on its own, with this devastating disease, it would certainly have had a good chance of being picked off before the cancer progressed this far.”

“这次洪水似乎杀死了中央龙这一类角恐龙,中央龙以群居而出名。我们怀疑,虽然不能证明,癌症能达到致命的状态,这是因为中央龙能够从群体数量的安全中获益。然而,如果患有这种致命疾病的中央龙独自外出,那么它可能在癌症恶化之前就被其他恐龙杀死了。“

The study is in the journal Lancet Oncology.

这项研究发表在《柳叶刀肿瘤学》杂志上。

Evans says the research introduces a new way to study paleopathology in the fossil record.

埃文斯说,这项研究为研究化石记录中的古病理学引入了一种新方法。

“This discovery definitely takes dinosaurs, which we often think of as almost mythical, powerful creatures, and i think it shows that they were real animals. And it’s really unique and sobering that they got diseases similar to the ones that humans get today. And they would have suffered greatly from these diseases, and so it brings them to life in a really unusual way.”

“这一发现无疑将恐龙作为研究对象,我们通常认为恐龙几乎是神秘而强大的生物,我认为此研究表明它们是真正的动物。它们所患的疾病与今天人类所患的疾病相似,这是非常独特、发人深悟的。它们会因为这些疾病而遭受巨大的痛苦,所以它们的生活也与众不同。“


“Given that hundreds of thousands of dinosaur bones have been dug up, is there any evidence that dinosaurs got cancer there?”

既然已经挖掘出了数十万块恐龙骨头,有没有证据表明恐龙得过癌症?”

David Evans, senior curator of Paleontology at the Royal Museum of Ontario in Toronto, at a recent museum fundraising event.

多伦多安大略皇家博物馆古生物学高级馆长大卫·埃文斯在最近的一次博物馆筹款活动上说道。

“There had been a few studies that had kind of suggested based on gross anatomy that dinosaurs might have gotten cancer, but there was nothing compelling from a medical standpoint, and from that point on we decided to go on a hunt for rare dinosaur diseases, in particular cancer.”

“有一些基于解剖结构的研究,似乎表明恐龙可能得了癌症,但从医学角度来看,这些研究没有什么说服力。从这个角度来看,我们决定去寻找罕见的恐龙疾病,尤其是癌症。”

So in 2017. Evans and colleagues went digging through a collection of dinosaur bones at the Royal Tyrell Museum of paleontology in Alberta—a hotbed of dinosaur fossils.

因此,在2017年,埃文斯和同事们开始在位于阿尔伯特的皇家提利尔古生物博物馆(恐龙化石的温床)的一批恐龙骨骼中进行挖掘。

“And out of the hundreds of dinosaur bones that we looked at, we found one that was a candidate for bone cancer.”

“在我们研究的数百块恐龙骨骼中,我们发现了一块骨头上可能有罹患骨癌。”

The bone specimen Evans and his colleagues found comes from a dinosaur that roamed Western Canada between 70 and 75 million years ago. The creature is called a Centrosaurus.

埃文斯和同事们发现的骨骼标本来自于7000万至7500万年前生活在加拿大西部的一种恐龙。这种生物被称为中央龙。

“Centrosaurus is a horned dinosaur. It’s about the size of a rhinoceros and it’s a close cousin of the famous triceratops, so it looked very similar. It would have a parrot beak at the end of its large skull. It had a neck shield similar to triceratops and walked around on four feet and ate plants.”

“中央龙是一种有角的恐龙。大小和犀牛差不多,是著名的三角龙的近亲,所以它们看起来非常相似。在它巨大的头骨末端会有一个鹦鹉嘴。它有一个类似于三角龙的颈盾,用四脚走路,以植物为食。”

Its apparent cancer is a particularly aggressive type.

明显癌症是一种特别侵袭性的类型。

“And this would have made it more vulnerable to the top predators at the time, which were the cousins of T. rex. But we actually don’t think it’s the cancer that kid this animal, which if it would have been allowed to run its course, it certainly could have been fatal

这使得中央龙更容易受到当时顶级掠食者的攻击,这些掠食者是雷克斯霸王龙的表亲。但我们并不认为这种癌症会杀死中央龙,但如果任由它发展,肯定会致命。

The tumorous bone was discovered among thousands of other bones from the same species. All these animals appeared to have died in a coastal flood.

块肿瘤骨是在数千块来自同一物种的骨头中发现的。所有这些动物似乎都死于一场沿海的洪水。

“And this flood looked like it killed a herd of these horned dinosaurs, Centrosaurus, which are known for living in these social groups. And we suspect, although we can’t prove, that the cancer could get to such an advanced state because this animal was able to benefit from the safety of numbers of being in a herd. Whereas if it was out on its own, with this devastating disease, it would certainly have had a good chance of being picked off before the cancer progressed this far.”

“这次洪水似乎杀死了中央龙这一类角恐龙,中央龙以群居而出名。我们怀疑,虽然不能证明,癌症能达到致命的状态,这是因为中央龙能够从群体数量的安全中获益。然而,如果患有这种致命疾病的中央龙独自外出,那么它可能在癌症恶化之前就被其他恐龙杀死了。“

The study is in the journal Lancet Oncology.

这项研究发表在《柳叶刀肿瘤学》杂志上。

Evans says the research introduces a new way to study paleopathology in the fossil record.

埃文斯说,这项研究为研究化石记录中的古病理学引入了一种新方法。

“This discovery definitely takes dinosaurs, which we often think of as almost mythical, powerful creatures, and i think it shows that they were real animals. And it’s really unique and sobering that they got diseases similar to the ones that humans get today. And they would have suffered greatly from these diseases, and so it brings them to life in a really unusual way.”

“这一发现无疑将恐龙作为研究对象,我们通常认为恐龙几乎是神秘而强大的生物,我认为此研究表明它们是真正的动物。它们所患的疾病与今天人类所患的疾病相似,这是非常独特、发人深悟的。它们会因为这些疾病而遭受巨大的痛苦,所以它们的生活也与众不同。“


3g.bigear.cn 用手机随时随地学英语
分享