科学美国人(翻译):猴子的近亲也会发出类似的叫声 2019.06.05

cathy0301 2019-06-18 268 阅读
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Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

猴子的近亲也会发出类似的叫声

In the wild, monkeys need to keep their eyes peeled for all sorts of dangers. Like leopards and eagles and snakes. But the green monkeys studied by Julia Fischer of the German Primate Center have an additional challenge: they also have to scan the skies for drones.“Why did we fly a drone over green monkeys, one may ask.”One may indeed. The answer is that Fischer and her colleagues are interested in how primates communicate.

在野外,猴子需要警惕各种危险。像豹子、老鹰和蛇。但是德国灵长类动物研究中心的茱莉亚·费舍尔研究的绿猴子还有一个额外的挑战:它们还必须扫描天空,寻找无人机。有人可能会问,我们为什么要让无人机飞过绿猴子。”一位可能确实。答案是费舍尔和她的同事们对灵长类动物如何交流很感兴趣。

In a classic study back in the 1980s, scientists showed that East African vervet monkeys produce alarm calls that are specific for the predators they encounter. So, for example, vervet monkeys hearing a leopard alarm [clip] might scurry up a tree, whereas the eagle call [clip] sends them running for cover under the closest shrub.

在上世纪80年代的一项经典研究中,科学家们发现东非vervet猴子会发出特定于它们遇到的捕食者的警报。例如,vervet monkeys听到豹纹警报(片段)可能会迅速爬上树,而eagle call(片段)会让它们跑到最近的灌木丛中寻找掩护。

Now, the green monkeys that live in Senegal share a similar system to warn of leopards and snakes. But they aren’t known to raise a ruckus in response to birds of prey.“And so therefore we decided to fly a drone over them.”The researchers treated 80 green monkeys to a show of drones. How did the animals react to this unfamiliar aerial intruder?“The monkeys did respond. They responded with alarm calls. [clip] And they responded by uh running away.”

现在,生活在塞内加尔的绿猴子拥有类似的系统来警告豹子和蛇。但人们不知道它们对猛禽的反应会引起骚动。所以我们决定用无人机飞越它们。研究人员让80只绿猴子观看无人机表演。动物们对这个陌生的空中入侵者有何反应?猴子们确实做出了回应。他们以报警电话回应。他们的反应是逃跑。”

Here’s where things get really interesting: the calls the green monkeys made after spotting the drones were different from the ones they use to signal leopards [clip] or snakes [clip]. But even more intriguing:“And when we did an acoustic analysis these alarm calls [clip] were almost eerily similar to the ones of the east African vervets. [clip]”The findings are described in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution. [Franziska Wegdell, Kurt Hammerschmidt and Julia Fischer, Conserved alarm calls but rapid auditory learning in monkey responses to novel flying objects]

有趣的是:绿猴子发现无人机后发出的叫声与它们用来给豹子(剪辑)或蛇(剪辑)发信号的叫声是不同的。但更有趣的是:“当我们进行声学分析时,这些警报信号(片段)几乎与东非vervets的警报信号惊人地相似。研究结果发表在《自然生态与进化》杂志上。

The fact that the two monkey species seem to speak the same language, if you will, even though they diverged from their last common ancestor some 3 million years ago, suggests that this vocal warning system is hard-wired.So if you hear a monkey go [clip], watch out for a hungry bird. Or check to see if you got a package delivered.

事实上,这两种猴子似乎说着同样的语言,即使它们与300万年前的最后一个共同祖先有所不同,这表明这种声音警告系统是与生俱来的。所以,如果你听到一只猴子在叫,当心一只饥饿的小鸟。或者检查一下你是否收到了包裹。

—Karen Hopkin

—来自Karen Hopkin


Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

猴子的近亲也会发出类似的叫声

In the wild, monkeys need to keep their eyes peeled for all sorts of dangers. Like leopards and eagles and snakes. But the green monkeys studied by Julia Fischer of the German Primate Center have an additional challenge: they also have to scan the skies for drones.“Why did we fly a drone over green monkeys, one may ask.”One may indeed. The answer is that Fischer and her colleagues are interested in how primates communicate.

在野外,猴子需要警惕各种危险。像豹子、老鹰和蛇。但是德国灵长类动物研究中心的茱莉亚·费舍尔研究的绿猴子还有一个额外的挑战:它们还必须扫描天空,寻找无人机。有人可能会问,我们为什么要让无人机飞过绿猴子。”一位可能确实。答案是费舍尔和她的同事们对灵长类动物如何交流很感兴趣。

In a classic study back in the 1980s, scientists showed that East African vervet monkeys produce alarm calls that are specific for the predators they encounter. So, for example, vervet monkeys hearing a leopard alarm [clip] might scurry up a tree, whereas the eagle call [clip] sends them running for cover under the closest shrub.

在上世纪80年代的一项经典研究中,科学家们发现东非vervet猴子会发出特定于它们遇到的捕食者的警报。例如,vervet monkeys听到豹纹警报(片段)可能会迅速爬上树,而eagle call(片段)会让它们跑到最近的灌木丛中寻找掩护。

Now, the green monkeys that live in Senegal share a similar system to warn of leopards and snakes. But they aren’t known to raise a ruckus in response to birds of prey.“And so therefore we decided to fly a drone over them.”The researchers treated 80 green monkeys to a show of drones. How did the animals react to this unfamiliar aerial intruder?“The monkeys did respond. They responded with alarm calls. [clip] And they responded by uh running away.”

现在,生活在塞内加尔的绿猴子拥有类似的系统来警告豹子和蛇。但人们不知道它们对猛禽的反应会引起骚动。所以我们决定用无人机飞越它们。研究人员让80只绿猴子观看无人机表演。动物们对这个陌生的空中入侵者有何反应?猴子们确实做出了回应。他们以报警电话回应。他们的反应是逃跑。”

Here’s where things get really interesting: the calls the green monkeys made after spotting the drones were different from the ones they use to signal leopards [clip] or snakes [clip]. But even more intriguing:“And when we did an acoustic analysis these alarm calls [clip] were almost eerily similar to the ones of the east African vervets. [clip]”The findings are described in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution. [Franziska Wegdell, Kurt Hammerschmidt and Julia Fischer, Conserved alarm calls but rapid auditory learning in monkey responses to novel flying objects]

有趣的是:绿猴子发现无人机后发出的叫声与它们用来给豹子(剪辑)或蛇(剪辑)发信号的叫声是不同的。但更有趣的是:“当我们进行声学分析时,这些警报信号(片段)几乎与东非vervets的警报信号惊人地相似。研究结果发表在《自然生态与进化》杂志上。

The fact that the two monkey species seem to speak the same language, if you will, even though they diverged from their last common ancestor some 3 million years ago, suggests that this vocal warning system is hard-wired.So if you hear a monkey go [clip], watch out for a hungry bird. Or check to see if you got a package delivered.

事实上,这两种猴子似乎说着同样的语言,即使它们与300万年前的最后一个共同祖先有所不同,这表明这种声音警告系统是与生俱来的。所以,如果你听到一只猴子在叫,当心一只饥饿的小鸟。或者检查一下你是否收到了包裹。

—Karen Hopkin

—来自Karen Hopkin


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