Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Creating a Green Campus. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:
Creating a Green Campus
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For question 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Colleges taking another look at value of merit-based aid
Good grades and high tests scores still matter—a lot—to many colleges as they award financial aid.
But with low-income students projected to make up an ever-larger share of the college-bound population in coming years, some schools are re-examining whether that aid, typically known as “merit aid”, is the most effective use of precious institutional dollars.
George Washington University in Washington, D.C., for example, said last week that it would cut the value of its average merit scholarships by about one-third and reduce the number of recipients(接受者), pouring the savings, about $2.5 million, into need-based aid. Allegheny College in Meadville, Pa., made a similar decision three years ago.
Now, Hamilton College in Clinton, N.Y., says it will phase out merit scholarships altogether. No current merit-aid recipients will lose their scholarships, but need-based aid alone will be awarded beginning with students entering in fall 2008.
Not all colleges offer merit aid; generally, the more selective a school, the less likely it is to do so. Harvard and Princeton, for example, offer generous need-based packages, but many families who don’t meet need eligibility(资格)have been willing to pay whatever they must for a big-name school.
For small regional colleges that struggle just to fill seats, merit aid can be an important revenue-builder because many recipients still pay enough tuition dollars over and above the scholarship amount to keep the institution running.
But for rankings-conscious schools in between, merit aid has served primarily as a tool to recruit top students and to improve their academic profits. “They’re trying to buy students,” says Skidmore College economist Sandy Baum.
Studies show merit aid also tends to benefit disproportionately students who could afford to enroll without it.
“As we look to the future, we see a more pressing need to invest in need-based aid,” says Monica Inzer, dean of admission and financial aid at Hamilton, which has offered merit scholarships for 10 years. During that time, it rose in US News & World Report’s ranking of the best liberal arts colleges, from 25 to 17.
Merit aid, which benefited about 75 students a year, or about 4% of its student body, at a cost of about $ 1 million a year, “served us well,” Inzer says, but “to be discounting the price for families that don’t need financial aid doesn’t feel right any more.”
Need-based aid remains by far the largest share of all student aid, which includes state, federal and institutional grants. But merit aid, offered primarily by schools and states, is growing faster, both overall and at the institutional level.
Between 1995-96 and 2003-04, institutional merit aid alone increased 212%, compared with 47% for need-based grants. At least 15 states also offer merit aid, typically in a bid to enroll top students in the state’s public institutions.
But in recent years, a growing chorus(异口同声)of critics has begun pressuring schools to drop the practice. Recent decisions by Hamilton and others may be “a sign that people are starting to realize that there’s this destructive competition going on,” says Baum, co-author of a recent College Report that raises concerns about the role of institutional aid not based on need.
David Laird, president of the Minnesota Private College Council, says many of his schools would like to reduce their merit aid but fear that in doing so, they would lose top students to their competitors.
“No one can take one-sided action,” says Laird, who is exploring whether to seek an exemption(豁免)from federal anti-trust laws so member colleges can discuss how they could jointly reduce merit aid, “This is a merry-go-round that’s going very fast, and none of the institutions believe they can sustain the risks of trying to break away by themselves.”
A complicating factor is that merit aid has become so popular with middle-income families, who don’t qualify for need-based aid, that many have come to depend on it. And, as tuitions continue to increase, the line between merit and need blurs.
That’s one reason Allegheny College doesn’t plan to drop merit aid entirely.
“We still believe in rewarding superior achievements and know that these top students truly value the scholarship,” says Scott Friedhoff, Allegheny’s vice president for enrollment.
Emory University in Atlanta, which boasts a $4.7 billion endowment(捐赠), meanwhile, is taking another approach. This year, it announced it would eliminate loans for needy students and cap them for middle-income families. At the same time, it would expand its 28-year-old merit program.
“Yeah, we’re playing the merit game,” acknowledges Tom Lancaster, associate dean for undergraduate education. But it has its strong point, too, he says. “The fact of the matter is, it’s not just about the lowest-income people. It’s the average American middle-class family who’s being priced out of the market.”
*A few words about merit-based aid:
Merit-based aid is aid offered to students who achieve excellence in a given area, and is generally known as academic, athletic and artistic merit scholarships.
Academic merit scholarships are based on students’ grades, GPA and overall academic performance during high school. They are typically meant for students going straight to college right after high school. However, there are scholarships for current college students with exceptional grades as well. These merit scholarships usually help students pay tuition bills, and they can be renewed each year as long as the recipients continue to qualify. In some cases, students may need to be recommended by their school or a teacher as part of the qualification process.
Athletic merit scholarships are meant for students that excel(突出)in sports of any kind, from football to track and field events. Recommendation for these scholarships is required, since exceptional athletic performance has to be recognized by a coach or a referee(裁判). Applicants need to send in a tape containing their best performance.
Artistic merit scholarships require that applicants excel in a given artistic area. This generally includes any creative field such as art, design, fashion, music, dance or writing. Applying for artistic merit scholarships usually requires that students submit a portfolio(选辑)of some sort, whether that includes a collection of artwork, a recording of a musical performance or a video of them dancing.
1. With more and more low-income students pursuing higher education, a number of colleges are ________.
A) offering students more merit-based aid B) revising their financial aid policies
C) increasing the amount of financial aid D) changing their admission processes
2. What did Allegheny College in Meadville do three years ago?
A) It tried to implement a novel financial aid program.
B) It added $ 2.5 million to its need-based aid program.
C) It phased out its merit-based scholarships altogether.
D) It cuts its merit-based aid to help the needy students.
3. The chief purpose of rankings-conscious colleges in offering merit aid is to ______.
A) improve teaching quality B) boost their enrollments
C) attract good students D) increase their revenues
4. Monica Inzer, dean of admission and financial aid at Hamilton, believes ______.
A) it doesn’t pay to spend $ 1 million a year to raise its ranking
B) it gives students motivation to award academic achievements
C) it’s illogical to use so much money on only 4% of its students
D) it’s not right to give aid to those who can afford the tuition
5. In recent years, merit-based aid has increased much faster than need-based aid due to ______.
A) more government funding to colleges B) fierce competition among institutions
C) the increasing number of top students D) schools’ improved financial situations
6. What is the attitude of many private colleges toward merit aid, according to David Laird?
A) They would like to see it reduced.
B) They regard it as a necessary evil.
C) They think it does more harm than good.
D) They consider it unfair to middle-class families.
7. Why doesn’t Allegheny College plan to drop merit aid entirely?
A) Raising tuitions have made college unaffordable for middle-class families.
B) With rising incomes, fewer students are applying for need-based aid.
C) Many students from middle-income families have come to rely on it.
D) Rising incomes have disqualified many students for need-based aid.
8. Annual renewal of academic merit scholarships depends on whether the recipients remain ______.
9. Applicants for athletic merit scholarships need a recommendation from a coach or a referee who ______ their exceptional athletic performance.
10. Applicants for artistic merit scholarships must produce evidence to show their ______ in a particular artistic field
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which the best answer is. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 11 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
11. A) Get some small change. B) Find a shopping center.
C) Cash a check at a bank. D) Find a parking meter.
12. A) Shopping with his son. B) Buying a gift for a child.
C) Promoting a new product. D) Bargaining with a salesgirl.
13. A) Taking photographs. B) Enhancing images.
C) Mending cameras. D) Painting pictures.
14. A) He moved to Baltimore when he was young.
B) He can provide little useful information.
C) He will show the woman around Baltimore.
D) He will ask someone else to help the woman.
15. A) He is rather disappointed. B) He is highly ambitious.
C) He can’t face up to the situation D) He knows his own limitation.
16. A) She must have paid a lot B) She is known to have a terrific figure.
C) Her gym exercise has yielded good results.
D) Her effort to keep fit is really praiseworthy.
17. A) Female students are unfit for studying physics.
B) He can serve as the woman’s tutor.
C) Physics is an important course at school.
D) The professor’s suggestion is constructive.
18. A) Indifferent. B) Doubtful. C) Pleased. D) Surprised.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) He prefers the smaller evening classes. B) He has signed up for a day course.
C) He has to work during the day. D) He finds the evening course cheaper.
20. A) Learn a computer language. B) Learn data processing.
C) Buy some computer software. D) Buy a few coursebooks.
21. A) Thursday evening, from 7:00 to 9:45. B) From September 1 to New Year’s eve.
C) Every Monday, lasting for 12 weeks. D) Three hours a week, 45 hours in total.
22. A) What to bring for registration. B) Where to attend the class.
C) How he can get to Frost Hall. D) Whether he can use a check.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) A training coach. B) A trading adviser.
C) A professional manager. D) A financial trader.
24. A) He can save on living expenses. B) He considers cooking creative.
C) He can enjoy healthier food. D) He thinks take-away is tasteless.
25. A) It is something inevitable. B) It is frustrating sometimes.
C) It takes patience to manage. D) It can be a good thing.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) There were no planets without moons. B) There was no air or water on Jupiter.
C) Life was not possible in outer space. D) The mystery of life could not be resolved.
27. A) It has a number of active volcanoes. B) It has an atmosphere like the earth’s.
C) It has a large ocean under its surface. D) It has deep caves several miles long.
28. A) Light is not an essential element to it. B) Life can form in very hot temperatures.
C) Every form of life undergoes evolution. D) Oxygen is not needed for some life forms.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) Whether they should take the child home.
B) What Dr. Mayer’s instructions exactly were.
C) Who should take care of the child at home.
D) When the child would completely recover.
30. A) She encourages them to ask questions when in doubt.
B) She makes them write down all her instructions.
C) She has them act out what they are to do at home.
D) She asks them to repeat what they are supposed to do.
31. A) It lacks the stability of the printed word. B) It contains many grammatical errors.
C) It is heavily dependent on the context. D) It facilitates interpe
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Job security. B) Good labour relations.
C) Challenging work. D) Attractive wages and benefits.
33. A) Many tedious jobs continue to be done manually.
B) More and more unskilled workers will lose jobs.
C) Computers will change the nature of many jobs.
D) Boring jobs will gradually be made enjoyable.
34. A) Offer them chances of promotion.
B) Improve their working conditions.
C) Encourage them to compete with each other.
D) Give them responsibilities as part of a team.
35. A) They will not bring real benefits to the staff.
B) They concern a small number of people only.
C) They are arbitrarily set by the administrators.
D) They are beyond the control of ordinary workers.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
In the humanities, authors write to inform you in many ways. These methods can be (36) ______ into three types of informational writing: factual, descriptive, and process.
Factual writing provides (37) ______ information on an author, composer, or artist or on a type of music, literature, or art. Examples of factual writing include notes on a book jacket or (38) ______ cover and longer pieces, such as an article describing a style of music which you might read in a music (39) ______ course. This kind of writing provides a (40) ______ for your study of the humanities.
As its name (41) ______, descriptive writing simply describes, or provides an (42) ______ of, a piece of music, art, or literature. For example, descriptive writing might list the colors an artist used in a painting or the (43) ______ a composer included in a musical composition, so as to make pictures or sounds in the reader’s mind by calling up specific details of the work. (44) ________.
Process writing explains a series of actions that bring about a result. (45) ________. This kind of writing is often found in art, where understanding how an art has created a certain effect is important. (46) _________.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
In families with two working parents, fathers may have more impact on a child’s language development than mothers, a new study suggests.
Researchers 47 92 families form 11 child care centers before their children were a year old, interviewing each to establish income, level of education and child care arrangements. Overall, it was a group of well-class families, with married parents both living in the home.
When the children were 2, researchers videotaped them at home in free-play sessions with both parents, 48 all of their speech. The study will appear in the November issue of The Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.
The scientists measured the 49 number of utterance (话语) of the parents, the number of different words they used, the complexity of their sentences and other 50 of their speech. On average, fathers spoke less than mothers did, but they did not differ in the length of utterances or proportion of questions asked.
Finally, the researchers 51 the children’s speech at age 3, using a standardized language test. The only predictors of high scores on the test were the mother’s level of education, the 52 of child care and the number of different words the father used.
The researchers are 53 why the father’s speech, and not the mother’s, had an effect.
“It’s well 54 that the mother’s language does have an impact,” said Nadya Pancsofar, the lead author of the study. It could be that the high-functioning mothers in the study had 55 had a strong influence on their children’s speech development, Ms. Pancsofar said, “or it may be that mothers are 56 in a way we didn’t measure in the study.”
A) already B) analyzed C) aspects D) characters E) contributing F) describing
G) established H) quality I) quoted J) recording K) recruited L) total
M) unconscious N) unsure O) yet
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Throughout this long, tense election, everyone has focused on the presidential candidates and how they’ll change America. Rightly so, but selfishly, I’m more fascinated by Michelle Obama and what she might be able to do, not just for this country, but for me as an African-American woman. As the potential First Lady, she would have the world’s attention. And that means that for the first time people will have a chance to get up close and personal with the type of African-American woman they so rarely see.
Usually, the lives of black women go largely unexamined. The prevailing theory seems to be that we’re all hot-tempered single mothers who can’t keep a man. Even in the world of make-believe, black women still can’t escape the stereotype of being eye-rolling, oversexed females raised by our never-married, alcoholic (酗酒的) mothers.
These images have helped define the way all women are viewed, including Michelle Obama. Before she ever gets the chance to commit to a cause, charity or foundation as First Lady, her most urgent and perhaps most complicated duty may be simple to be herself.
It won’t be easy. Because few mainstream publications have done in-depth features on regular African-American women, little is known about who we are, what we think and what we face on a regular basis. For better or worse, Michelle will represent us all.
Just as she will have her critics, she will also have millions of fans who usually have little interest in the First Lady. Many African-American blogs have written about what they’d like to see Michelle bring to the White House—mainly showing the world that a black woman can support her man and raise a strong black family. Michelle will have to work to please everyone—an impossible task. But for many African-American women like me, just a little of her poise (沉着), confidence and intelligence will go a long way in changing an image that’s been around for far too long.
57. Why does Michelle Obama hold a strong fascination for the author?
A) She serves as a role model for African women.
B) She possesses many admirable qualities becoming a First Lady.
C) She will present to the world a new image of African-American women.
D) She will pay closer attention to the interests of African-American women.
58. What is the common stereotype of African-American women according to the author?
A) They are victims of violence. B) They are of an inferior violence.
C) They use quite a lot of body language. D) They live on charity and social welfare.
59. What do many African-Americans write about in their blogs?
A) Whether Michelle can live up to the high expectations of her fans.
B) How Michelle should behave as a public figure.
C) How proud they are to have a black woman in the White House.
D) What Michelle should do as wife and mother in the White House.
60. What does the author say about Michelle Obama as a First Lady?
A) However many fans she has, she should remain modest,
B) She shouldn’t disappoint the African-American community.
C) However hard she tries, she can’t expect to please everybody.
D) She will give priority to African-American women’s concerns.
61. What do many African-American women hope Michelle Obama will do?
A) Help change the prevailing view about black women.
B) Help her husband in the task of changing America.
C) Outshine previous First Lady.
D) Fully display her fine qualities.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
When next year’s crop of high-school graduates arrive at Oxford University in the fall of 2009, they’ll be joined by a new face; Andrew Hamilton, the 55-year-old provost (教务长) of Yale, who’ll become Oxford’s vice-chancellor—a position equivalent to university president in America.
Hamilton isn’t the only educator crossing the Atlantic. Schools in France, Egypt, Singapore, etc, have also recently made top-level hires from abroad. Higher education has become a big and competitive business nowadays, and like so many businesses, it’s gone global. Yet the talent flow isn’t universal. High-level personnel tend to head in only one direction: outward from America.
The chief reason is that American schools don’t tend to seriously consider looking abroad. For example, when the board of the University of Colorado searched for a new president, it wanted a leader familiar with the state government, a major source of the university’s budget. “We didn’t do any global consideration,” says Patricia Hayes, the board’s chair. The board ultimately picked Bruce Benson, a 69-year-old Colorado businessman and political activist (活动家) who is likely to do well in the main task of modern university presidents: fund-raising. Fund-raising is a distinctively American thing, since U.S. schools rely heavily on donations. The fund-raising ability is largely a product of experience and necessity.
Many European universities, meanwhile, are still mostly dependent on government funding. But government support has failed to keep pace with rising student number. The decline in government support has made funding-raising an increasing necessary ability among administrators and has hiring committees hungry for Americans.
In the past few years, prominent schools around the world have joined the trend. In 2003, when Cambridge University appointed Alison Richard, another former Yale provost, as its vice-chancellor, the university publicly stressed that in her previous job she had overseen “a major strengthening of Yale’s financial position.”
Of course, fund-raising isn’t the only skill outsiders offer. The globalization of education means more universities will be seeking heads with international experience of some kind of promote international programs and attract a global student body. Foreigners can offer a fresh perspective on established practices.
62. What is the current trend in higher education discussed in the passage?
A) Institutions worldwide are hiring administrators from the U.S.
B) A lot of political activists are being recruited as administrators.
C) American universities are enrolling more international students.
D) University presidents are paying more attention to funding-raising.
63. What is the chief consideration of American universities when hiring top-level administrators?
A) The political correctness. B) Their ability to raise funds.
C) Their fame in academic circles. D) Their administrative experience.
64. What do we learn about European universities from the passage?
A) The tuitions they charge have been rising considerably.
B) Their operation is under strict government supervision.
C) They are strengthening their position by globalization.
D) Most of their revenues come from the government.
65. Cambridge University appointed Alison Richard as its vice-chancellor chiefly because _____.
A) she was known to be good at raising money
B) she could help strengthen its ties with Yale
C) she knew how to attract students overseas
D) she had boosted Yale’s academic status
66. In what way do top-level administrators from abroad contribute to university development?
A) They can enhance the university’s image.
B) They will bring with them more international faculty.
C) They will view a lot of things from a new perspective.
D) They can set up new academic disciplines.
Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C), and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Older people must be given more chances to learn if they are to contribute to society rather than be a financial burden, according to a new study on population published recently.
The current people approach which 67 on younger people and on skills for employment is not 68 to meet the challenges of demographic (人口结构的) change, it says. Only 1% of the education budget is 69 spent on the oldest third of the population.
The 70 include the fact that most people can expect to spend a third of their lives in 71 , that there are now more people over 59 than under 16 and that 11.3 million people are 72 state pension age.
“ 73 needs to continue throughout life. Our historic concentration of policy attention and resources 74 young people cannot meet the new 75 ,” says the report’s author, Professor Stephen McNair.
The major 76 of our education budget is spent on people below the age of 25. 77 people are changing their jobs, 78 , partners and lifestyles more often than 79 , they need opportunities to learn at every age 80 , some people are starting new careers in their 50s and later.
People need opportunities to make a “midlife review” to 81 to the later stage of employed life, and to plan for the transition (过渡) 82 retirement, which may now happen 83 at any point from 50 to over 90, says McNair.
And there should be more money 84 to support people in establishing a 85 of identity and finding constructive 86 for the “third age”, the 20 or more years they will spend in healthy retired life.
67. A) operates B) focuses C) counts D) depends
68. A) superior B) regular C) essential D) adequate
69. A) currently B) barely C) anxiously D) heavily
70. A) regulations B) obstacles C) challenges D) guidelines
71. A) enjoyment B) retirement C) stability D) inability
72. A) over B) after C) across D) beside
73. A) Indentifying B) Learning C) Instructing D) Practicing
74. A) at B) by C) in D) on
75. A) desires B) realms C) needs D) intentions
76. A) measure B) ratio C) area D) portion
77. A) When B) Until C) Whether D) Before
78. A) neighbors B) moods C) homes D) minds
79. A) age B) ever C) previously D) formerly
80. A) For example B) By contrast C) In particular D) On average
81. A) transform B) yield C) adjust D) suit
82. A) within B) from C) beyond D) to
83. A) unfairly B) unpredictably C) instantly D) indirectly
84. A) reliable B) considerable C) available D) feasible
85. A) sense B) conscience C) project D) definition
86. A) ranks B) assets C) ideals D) roles
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
87. You would not have failed if you __________________________(按照我的指令去做).
88. Despite the hardship he encountered, Mark never ______________(放弃对知识的追求).
89. Scientists agree that it will be a long time ______________(我们找到治愈癌症的方法).
90. Production has to be increased considerably to __________________(与消费者不断增长的需求保持同步).
91. The more exercise you take,________________________(你越不大可能得感冒).