Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the remark "Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed." You can cite examples to illustrate your point. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
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Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A) , B) , C) and D) . For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Welcome, Freshmen. Have an iPod.
Taking a step that many professors may view as a bit counterproductive, some colleges and universities are doling out Apple iPhones and Internet-capable iPods to their students.
The always-on Internet devices raise some novel possibilities, like tracking where students gather together. With far less controversy, colleges could send messages about canceled classes, delayed buses, campus crises or just the cafeteria menu.
While schools emphasize its usefulness-online research in class and instant polling of students, for example - a big part of the attraction is, undoubtedly, that the iPhone is cool and a hit with students. Being equipped with one of the most recent cutting-edge IT products could just help a college or university foster a cutting-edge reputation.
Apple stands to win as well, hooking more young consumers with decades of technology purchases ahead of them. The lone losers, some fear, could be professors.
Students already have laptops and cell phones, of course, but the newest devices can take class distractions to a new level. They practically beg a user to ignore the long-suffering professor struggling to pass on accumulated wisdom from the front of the room - a prospect that teachers find most irritating and students view as, well, inevitable.
"When it gets a little boring, I might pull it out," acknowledged Naomi Pugh, a first-year student at Freed- Hardeman University in Henderson, Tenn., referring to her new iPod Touch, which can connect to the Internet over a campus wireless network. She speculated that professors might try even harder to make classes interesting if they were to compete with the devices.
Experts see a movement toward the use of mobile technology in education, though they say it is in its infancy as professors try to come up with useful applications. Providing powerful hand-held devices is sure to fuel debates over the role of technology in higher education.
"We think this is the way the future is going to work," said Kyle Dickson, co-director of research and the mobile learning initiative at Abilene Christian University in Texas, which has bought more than 600 iPhones and 300 iPods for students entering this fall.
Although plenty of students take their laptops to class, they don't take them everywhere and would prefer something lighter. Abilene Christian settled on the devices after surveying students and finding that they did not like hauling around their laptops, but that most of them always carried a cell phone, Dr. Dickson said.
It is not clear how many colleges and universities plan to give out iPhones and iPods this fall; officials at Apple were unwilling to talk about the subject and said that they would not leak any institution's plans.
"We can't announce other people's news," said Greg Joswiak, vice president of iPod and iPhone marketing at Apple. He also said that he could not discuss discounts to universities for bulk purchases.
At least four institutions - the University of Maryland, Oklahoma Christian University, Abilene Christian and Freed-Hardeman- have announced that they will give the devices to some or all of their students this fall.
Other universities are exploring their options. Standford University has hired a student-run company to design applications like a campus map and directory for the iPhone. It is considering whether to issue iPhones but not sure it's necessary, noting that more than 700 iPhones were registered on the university's network last year.
At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, iPhones might already have been everywhere, if AT&T. the wireless carrier offering the iPhone in the United States, had a more reliable network, said Andrew Yu, mobile devices platform project manager at M.I.T. "We would have probably gone ahead with this, maybe just getting a thousand iPhones and giving them out," Mr. Yu said.
The University of Maryland at College Park is proceeding cautiously, giving the iPhone or iPod Touch to 150 students, said Jeffrey Huskamp, vice president and chief information officer at the university. "We don't think that we have all the answers," Mr. Huskamp said. By observing how students use the gadgets, he said. "We're trying to get answers from the students."
At each college, the students who choose to get an iPhone must pay for mobile phone service. Those service contracts include unlimited data use. Both the iPhones and the iPod Touch devices can connect to the Internet through campus wireless networks. With the iPhone, those networks may provide faster connections and longer battery life than AT&T's data network. Many cell phones allow users to surf the Web, but only some newer ones are capable of wireless connection to the local area computer network.
University officials say that they have no plans to track their students (and Apple said it would not be possible unless students give their permission). They say that they are drawn to the prospect of learning applications outside the classroom, though such lesson plans have yet to surface.
"My colleagues and I are studying something called augmented reality (a field of computer research dealing with the combination of real-world and virtual reality)," said Christopher Dede, professor in learning technologies at Harvard University, "Alien Contact," for example, is an exercise developed for middle-school students who use hand-held devices that can determine their location. As they walk around a playground or other area, text, video or audio pops up at various points to help them try to figure out why aliens were in the schoolyard.
"You can imagine similar kinds of interactive activities along historical lines," like following the Freedom Trail in Boston, Professor Dede said. "It's important that we do research so that we know how well something like this works."
The rush to distribute the devices worries some professors, who say that students are less likely to participate in class if they are multi-tasking. "I'm not someone who's anti-technology, but I'm always worried that technology becomes an end in and of itself, and it replaces teaching or it replaces analysis." said Ellen Millender, associate professor of classics at Reed College in Portland, Ore. (She added that she hoped to buy an iPhone for herself once prices fall.)
Robert Summers, who has taught at Cornell Law School for about 40 years, announced this week in a detailed, footnoted memorandum - that he would ban laptop computers from his class on contract law.
"I would ban that too if I knew the students were using it in class." Professor Summers said of the iPhone, after the device and its capabilities were explained to him. "What we want to encourage in these students is an active intellectual experience, in which they develop the wide range of complex reasoning abilities required of good lawyers."
The experience at Duke University may ease some concerns. A few years ago, Duke began giving iPods to students with the idea that they might use them to record lectures (these older models could not access the Internet).
"We had assumed that the biggest focus of these devices would be consuming the content," said Tracy Futhey, vice president for information technology and chief information officer at Duke.
But that is not all that the students did. They began using the iPods to create their own "content." making audio recordings of themselves and presenting them. The students turned what could have been a passive interaction into an active one. Ms. Futhey said.
1. Many professors think that giving out Apple iPhones or Internet-capable iPods to
A) updates teaching facilities in universities
B) has started a revolution in higher education
C) can facilitate teacher-student interaction
D) may not benefit education as intended
2. In the author's view, being equipped with IT products may help colleges and
A) build an innovative image
B) raise their teaching efficiency
C) track students' activities
D) excite student interest in hi-tech
3. The distribution of iPhones among students has raised concerns that they will
A) induce students to buy more similar products
B) increase tension between professors and students
C) further distract students from class participation
D) prevent students from accumulating knowledge
4. Naomi Pugh at Freed-Hardeman University speculated that professors would
A) find new applications for iPod Touch devices
B) have to work harder to enliven their classes
C) have difficulty learning to handle the devices
D) find iPhones and iPods in class very helpful
5. Experts like Dr. Kyle Dickson at Abilene Christian University think that _________.
A) mobile technology will be more widely used in education
B) the role of technology in education cannot be overestimated
C) mobile technology can upgrade professors' teaching tool-kit
D) iPhones and iPods will replace laptops sooner or later
6. What do we learn about the University of Maryland at College Park concerning the
use of iPhones and iPods?
A) It has sought professors' opinions.
B) It has benefited from their use.
C) It is trying to follow the trend.
D) It is proceeding with caution.
7. University officials claim that they dole out iPhones and iPods so as to _________.
A) encourage professors to design newer lesson plans
B) help improve professor-student relationships
C) facilitate students' learning outside of class
D) stimulate students' interest in updating technology
8. Ellen Millender at Reed College in Portland is concerned that technology will take
the place of ________________.
9. Professor Robert Summers at Cornell Law School banned laptop computers from his
class because he thinks qualified lawyers need to possess a broad array of ____________________.
10. The experience at Duke University may ease some concerns because the students
have used iPods for active ________________.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Direction: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete stamens. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
Question 47 to 51 are based on the following passage
Highly proficient musicianship is hard won. Although it’s often assumed musical ability us inherited, there’s abundant evidence that this isn’t the case. While it seems that at birth virtually everyone has perfect pitch, the reasons that one child is better than another are motivation and practice.
Highly musical children were sung to more as infants and more encouraged to join in song games as kids than less musical ones, long before any musical ability could have been evident. Studies of classical musicians prove that the best ones practiced considerably more from childhood onwards than ordinary orchestral players, and this is because their parents were at them to put in the hours from a very young age.
The same was true of children selected for entry to specialist music schools, compared with those who were rejected. The chosen children had parents who had very actively supervised music lessons and daily practice from young ages, giving up substantial periods of leisure time to take the children to lessons and concerts.
The singer Michael Jackson’s story, although unusually brutal and extreme, is illumination when considering musical prodigy(天才). Accounts suggest that he was subjected to cruel beatings and emotional torture ,and that he was humiliated (羞辱) constantly by his father, What sets Jackson’s family apart is that his father used his reign of terror to train his children as musicians and dancers.
On top of his extra ability Michael also had more drive. This may have been the result of being the closest of his brothers and sisters to his mother. “He seemed different to me from the other children —special,”Michael’s mother said of him. She may not have realized that treating her son as special may have been part of the reason be became like that.
All in all, if you want to bring up a Mozart or Bach, the key factor is how hard you are prepared to crack the whip. Thankfully, most of us will probably settle for a bit of fun on the recorder and some ill-executed pieces of music-on the piano from our children.
47.According to the author, a child’s musical ability has much to do with their .
48.In order to develop the musical ability of their children, many parents will accompany them during their practice sacrificing a lot of then own .
49. Because of their father’s pressure and strict training, Michael Jackson and some of his brothers and sisters eventually became .
50. Michael’s extra drive for music was partly due to the fact that he was by his mother.
51. To bring up a great musician like Mozart or Bach, willingness to be strict with your child is
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based pm the following passage.
In 2011, many shoppers chose to avoid the frantic crowds and do their holiday shopping from the comfort of their computer. Sales at online retailers gained by more than 15%, making it the biggest season ever. But people are also returning those purchases at record rates, up 8% from last year.
What went wrong? Is the lingering shadow of the global financial crisis making it harder to accept extravagant indulgences? Or that people shop more impulsively—and therefore make bad decisions—when online? Both arguments are plausible. However, there is a third factor: a question of touch. We can love the look but, in an online environment, we cannot feel the quality of a texture, the shape of the fit, the fall of a fold or, for that matter, the weight of an earring. And physically interacting with an object makes you more committed to your purchase.
When my most recent book Brandwashed was released, I teamed up with a local bookstore to conduct an experiment about the difference between the online and offline shopping experience. I carefully instructed a group of volunteers to promote my book in two different ways. The first was a fairly hands-off approach. Whenever a customer would inquire about my book, the volunteer would take them over to the shelf and point to it. Out of 20 such requests, six customers proceeded with the purchase.
The second option also involved going over to the shelf but, this time, removing the book and them subtly holding onto it for just an extra moment before placing it in the customer’s hands. Of the 20 people who were handed the book, 13 ended up buying it. Just physically passing the book showed a big difference in sales. Why? We feel something similar to a sense of ownership when we hold things in our hand. That’s why we establish or reestablish connection by greeting strangers and friends with a handshake. In this case, having to then let go of the book after holding it might generate a subtle sense of loss, and motivate us to make the purchase even more.
A recent study also revealed the power of touch, in this case when it came to conventional mail. A deeper and longer-lasting impression of a message was formed when delivered in a letter, as opposed to receiving the same message online. Brain imaging showed that, on touching the paper, the emotional center of the brain was activated, thus forming a stronger bond. The study also indicated that once touch becomes part of the process, it could translate into a sense of possession.
This sense of ownership is simply not part of the equation in the online shopping experience.
52. Why do people prefer shopping online according to the author?
A) It is more comfortable and convenient.
B) It saves them a lot of money and time.
C) It offers them a lot more options and bargains.
D) It gives them more time to think about their purchase.
53. Why do more customers return their purchases bought online?
A) They regretted indulging in costly items in the recession.
B) They changed their mind by the time the goods were delivered.
C) They had no chance to touch them when shopping online.
D) They later found the quality of goods below their expectations.
54. What is the purpose of author’s experiment?
A) To test his hypothesis about online shopping.
B) To find out people’s reaction to his recent book.
C) To find ways to increase the sale of his new book.
D) To try different approaches to sales promotion.
55. How might people feel after letting go of something they held?
A) A sense of disappointmentC) A subtle loss of interest
B) More motivated to own it. D) Less sensitive to its texture.
56. What does train imaging in a recent study reveal?
A) Conventional letters contain subtle messages.
B) A lack of touch is the chief obstacle to e-commerce.
C) Email lacks the potential to activate the brain.
D) Physical touch helps form a sense of possession.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Apparently everyone knows that global warming only makes climate more extreme. A hot, dry summer has triggered another flood of such claims. And, while many interests are at work, one of the players that benefits the most from this story are the media: the notion of “extreme” climate simply makes for more compelling news.
Consider Paul Krugman writing breathlessly in the New York Times about the “rising incidence of extreme events,” He claims that global warming caused the current drought in America’s Midwest, and that supposedly record-high corn prices could cause a global food crisis.
But the United Nations climate panel’s latest assessment tells us precisely the opposite. For “North America there is medium confidence that there has an overall slight tendency toward less dryness” Moreover, there is no way that Krugman could have identified this drought as being caused by global warming without a time machine; Climate models estimate that such detection will be possible by 2048, at the earliest.
And, fortunately, this year’s drought appears unlikely to cause a food crisis, as global rice and wheat supplies retain plentiful. Moreover, Krugman overlooks inflation: Prices have increased six-fold since 1969. so, while com futures(期货) did set a record of about S8 per bushel(葡式耳)in late July, the inflation-adjusted price of corn was higher throughout most of the 1970s, reaching 516 in1974.
Finally, Krugman conveniently forgets that concerns about global warming are the main reason that corn prices have skyrocketed since 2005. Nowadays 40 percent of corn grown in the United States is used to produce ethanol(乙醇),which does absolutely nothing for the climate, but certainly distorts the price of corn—at the expense of many of the world’s poorest people.
Bill Mickbben similarly worries in The Guardian about the Midwest drought and corn prices. He confidently tells us that raging wildfires from New Mexico and Colorado to Siberia are “exactly” what the early stages of global warming look like.
In fact, the latest overview of global wildfire suggests that fire intensity has declined over the past 70 years and is now close to its preindustrial level.
When well-meaning campaigners want us to pay attention to global warming, they often end up pitching beyond the facts. And, while this may seem justified by a noble goal, such “policy by people” tactics rarely work, and often backfire.
Remember how, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Al Gore claimed that we were in store for ever more destructive hurricanes? Since then, hurricane incidence has dropped off the charts. Exaggerated claims merely fuel public distrust and disengagement.
That is unfortunate, because global warming is a real problem, and we do need to address it.
57. In what way do the media benefit from extreme weather?
A) They can attract people’s attention to their reports.
B) They can choose from a greater variety of topics.
C) They can make themselves better known.
D) They can give voice to different views.
58. What is the author’s comment on Krugman’s claim about the current drought in America’s Midwest?
A) A time machine is needed to testify to its truth.
B) It is based on an erroneous climate model.
C) It will eventually get proof in 2048.
D) There is no way to prove its validity.
59. What is the chief reason for the rise in corn prices according to the author?
A) Demand for food has been rising in the developing countries.
B) A considerable portion of corn is used to produce green fuel.
C) Climate change has caused corn yields to drop markedly.
D) Inflation rates have been skyrocketing since the 1970s.
60. What does the author say about global wildfire incidence over the past 70 years?
A) It has got worse with the rise in extreme weathers.
B) It signals the early stages of global warming.
C) It has dropped greatly.
D) It is related to drought.
61. What does the author think of the exaggerated claims in the media about global warming?
A) They are strategies to raise public awareness.
B) They do a disservice to addressing the problem.
C) They aggravate public distrust about science.
D) They create confusion about climate change.
Part VCloze (15 minutes)
There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the rght side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
In most cultures throughout the world, there is an expectation that when a person reaches adulthood, marriage should soon follow. In the United States 62，each month upwards of 168,000 couples wed,63 to love, honor, and respect their chosen life mates 64 death parts them. The expectation is deep-rooted.
65 the social functions, purposes, and relevance of marriage are rapidly changing in 66 society, making them less clear-cut than they have been 67 history. For instance, in a Pew Research Center random polling of over 2,000 68 fewer than half of all of the adults polled indicated that 69 a man and a woman plan to spend the 70 of their lives together as a couple, it was important than 71 marry.
Those of us who choose to marry have 72 reasons why we decide to marry the person we do. There is a 72, however in our Western, individualistic culture: We tend to marry for reasons that benefit ourselves,74for reasons that benefit the society 75, such as found in collectivist cultures. Research in Western cultures has found, for example, that the number-one 76 people cite for marrying to signify a lifelong commitment 77 someone they love. However, this reason is not the only response to why people wed—today, people get married for reasons of commitment, security, and personal belief systems. The Pew Research Center’s recent findings 78 that the main reasons people get married are for 79happiness and commitment, and bearing and missing children. As the date from this 80 show us, there are racial, age, and religious differences in what people 81 to be the main purposes of getting married.
62. A)alone C) barely
B) solely D) again
63. A)trusting C) vowing
B) competing D) pretending
64. A)after C) when
B) until D) though
65. A)However C)Therefore
B) Hence D) Then
66. A) contemporary C) constructive
B) conventional D)consequent
67. A) beyond C) within
B) throughout D) amidst
68. A) objects C) individuals
B) specimens D) incidents
69. A) whereas C) for
B) unlessD) if
70. A) wholeC) leftover
B) totalD) rest
71. A) equallyC) nominally
B) legally D) vitally
72. A) radical C) specific
B) constantD) designated
73. A) worry C) myth
B) confidence D) tendency
74. A) rather than C) not only
B) or else D) as well
75. A) at length C) at random
B) at large D) at risk
76. A) ease C) reason
B) belief D) notion
77. A) about C) in
B) over D) to
78. A) suggest C) signify
B) raise D) resolve
79. A) moral C) visual
B) mutual D) versatile
80. A) legend C)survey
B) episode D) blueprint
81. A) observe C) substitute
B) dispatch D) consider
Directions：Complete the sentence by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheer 2.
82. (我们刚到山顶)than we all sat down to rest.
83. Anyone driving with a high blood alcohol level (将被指控为醉驾) and face a severe penalty.
84. Many people have become so addicted to online shopping that they (情不自禁每天都要访问购物网站).
85. You are an executive council member of our organization, so (你说的话有份量).
86. To fully appreciate the author’s motive and intention, you really have to (仔细从字里行间去解读).